Saturday, June 18, 2011

Study on Status of Unemployed Tribal Youth


 Discussion in Youth Shelter in Mukunuru village

Study on status of unemployed tribal youth in chinturu mandal, khammam district, A.P.
Objectives of the study:
1. To assess the status of unemployed tribal youth.
2. To understand their engagement in the eking out their livelihoods.
3. To assess possible alternative livelihood opportunities for the youth.
4. To evolve possible strategies to their rehabilitation.
STUDY ON STATUS OF UNEMPLOYED TRIBAL YOUTH



S. Subhani, M.A
Association for Social and Humanize Action (Asha)
(Regd No: 2893/94)
 Chinturu – 507 126
Khammam district, Andhra Pradesh, INDIA
Cell Phone: 9492381609, 8897797636







Sponsored by:-

CENTRE FOR WORLD SOLIDARITY
SECUNDERABAD – 500 017.



INDEX

Major source of income now a days;

Hurdles in seeking Proper employment and Self employment Trails:



INTRODUCTION:

            The CHINTURU mandal formed on 20.5.1985 and  this Tribal area consists of  15 Grama Panchayaths.  Its borders are Chattisgadh and Orissa towards north, V.R.:Puram Mandal towards the south, East Godawary  towards the East and Bhadrachalam Mandal itowards the West. Eastern Chinturu was separated from its western part by the river Sabari, the bridge that was constructed during 1970s connected both the parts and exposed Chinturu to so called development and degraded tribal life style, the connection brought in political parties to experiment with them for attaining their vested interests, self centered officials to educated and develop these areas and main stream them, locks to lock doors, forced these tribal people to talk lies, to cheat others, and the process is continuing…..
 The total population according to 2001 census is 36,763.  Out of this the Tribal Population is 78.01% the SC population 15% and the others 6.99%. The Tribals of this area are Koyas, Kondareddies and Naiks.  It is hilly area covered with thick forests containing more than 30varieties of commercially important trees.  The average rain fall is 900 to 1100 mm.   The state highway from Khammam to Bhadrachalam passes through Chinturu and to Visakhapatnam and Rajamudry.  Besides the river Sabari the other tributary rivers which merge with SABARI in the mandal are Sileru and Sokileru. Sabari flows towards west side of this aprt of Chinturu and Joins in Godawari River at Kunavaram (this was where Sabari offered sweet fruits to the Lord Sri. Rama, according to Ramayana.)  Few nontribal farmers migrated to Sabari belt area for culitivation they gradually occupied major part of this area on lease basis.  Three Hydroelectro power projects are there on Seleru river in Andhra Pradesh, Polluru in Khammam district, Donkarai in East Godavari and Upper Seleru in Visakha Dist and Chitrakonda in Orissa..

 

SCENARIO:

People:
The Koya   tribes are of average height and weight.  They have fair complexion. Koya families settle in their farms with their kith and kin, in a way they are more individualistic in nature. Each settlement does not have more than 5 to 7 families.  3 to 4 such settlements spread in a radius of 2-3 Km from a village.  Their houses are spacious; walls are made with bamboo frames plastered with mud, most of the roofing was / is palm leaves, some are thatched. Men do not have specific dress code but women used to wear saree with a folding at knee length, known as “Gottodi” this pattern is gradually disappearing due to various reasons. Their staple food is Jowar and Rice.  They prepare liquor from vippa puvvu ( mohuva flowers)  and the sap collected from Palm trees are consumed regularly basing on the availability. Mohuva flowers are dried and used for eating and the oil extracted from Mohuva kernel is used for cooking.  They also dry theses flowers, fry them and eat.  They extract edible oil from the seeds of vippa.  Both Mohuva and Palm trees are considered as important trees by tribal sections of this area.

Tribal villages:

Most of the villages are tribal villages.  The Kula Panchayathi (Traditional Self Rule) system is still prevailing in very few, remote villages and many villages are polluted by different political parties after establishing their connections with these people. Besides political intervention the leftist ideology, the Movement, increased Departmental interventions, formation of Parallel Constitutional Panchayats, latter formation many committees, with in a village, with financial and other assurances, divided people and weakened every one of the community, in turn they are forced depend on external forces for every thing.

Socio Economic Conditions:

Podu cultivation is of two types: one is Chalaka Podu (on flat lands The main occupations of these people is rain fed cultivation and podu cultivation (Shifting /Jhoom cultivation) most of their food is ensured through cultivation and monetary need are met by selling Non Timber Forest Produce. Tribal life style was leisure life style, cultivation, NTFP collection, selling their produce in shandies, dancing during nights and during festivals, men going for hunting fishing, some times organizing festivals, with out being influenced by others was their life style. But all that changed….. for no cause of them selves.
) and second one is Konda Podu (Hill) practiced on Hill slopes.  Plain podu is gradually got converted into commercial crops or Eucalyptus plantation.  Food crop yields are very low and the yield are merely  enough to manage their families just for 6 to 9 months only,  for  managing the remaining period by going for waged labour. Earlier tribes of this area used to go for labour work both with in the locality and out side thrugh tempory migration, but this external dependency has come down due to 100 Days NREGA. ( N.T.F.P. collection has also come down due to deforestation as well as afferostation with Eucalyptus plantation, and different plans of forestry Department which brings revenue for the department but not to the people. The festivals performed by these people are mainly  Bhoomi Panduga, festival before starting cultivating the land, Patchpanduga, before collecting and using other fruits and vegetables other than cereals. Hunting wild animals and catching fish were / are their routine seasonal habits.   They were experts in intoxicating fish and catching them but new version of catching is either by using gelatin sticks or by adding Endosulphan in streams and ponds. They treat (Animals) cattle as property and they meet emergency needs like health/medicine etc from cattle selling.  For any ailment they try local herbal practioners fortreatment if not cured then they go for allopathy.  Accessbility for Medical fecilities is very poor and 1 doctor for 10,000 populations.  Common diseases in this area are fever, T.B. Malaria and diarrhea.  They sell N.T.F.P. (Non Timber Forest Produce and purchase some commodities like Redchilly, Salt, Dryfish, Kerosene, cooking oil, Tobacco, Onion etc, from weekly market day that are held at different palces on different days of the week, on Wednesday at Chinturu, on Sunday at Mothugudem and on Friday at Edugurallapalli, Here they are exploited in two ways one is they get low price for their NTFP / Agricultural  products and pay high prices in purchasing commodities of poor quality, most of the times the sold products and not branded, but people pay branded prices.
Some of the agricultural practices on Sabari belt have been adopted by tribal in the due course, and the in come from NTFP has been increasing and getting considerable income to the NTFP collectors, most of the tribal families on the Sabari belt became economically sound and sending their children to Bhadrachalam for higher studies, where ITDA is supporting a part of their educational expenditure. Better life style is arranged for youth for education by parents.

Political Situation:

The CPM and Congress (I) are the two major political parties that have command in this area.  The CPM party is very strong and active.  Besides CPM, the Naxalites belonging to People’s War group are also active in this area. The influence of all the three parties could be observed here. Bhadrachalam is a reserved constituency for……  However, the tribals of this area have their own administrative system with the Headman of the village known as Patel, as the deciding authority in the village.  Usually the tribal Panchayath solves all their internal disputes.
The political interventions has not improved the status of youth in any manner, rather they injected irresponsibility and non commitment to work. Some parties even told to students that Fight for Rights while you Learn” this lead students to fight for a banana, an egg, and what not any thing to fight! Being in this emotion students lost the habit of reading good books, dreaming for better future, discussing social issues which were a major part of earlier generation has not transferred to youth which is MOST IMPORTANT FOR DEVELOPMENT this is an undeniable part in acquiring their rights along with knowledge that is required..

Religious and cultural situation:

            They are animists and worship a tribal God known as ‘ Konda Devara’.  Hindu festivals are not important for them.  Boomi (land) festival and first fruit festivals are of importance for them.  On the occasion of the first fruit festival the entire village community gathers together for celebrating it.  On that day the community will harvest the first fruits and share it equally among themselves.  Until that day the owners of the trees do not touch the fruit.  After the festival the owning families can pluck the fruits and use them.  They have their own marriage customs and funeral rites.  Feeding the entire village community on these occasions with non-vegetarian food is part of their culture.
The traditional well known tribal dance “Rela”of this area is gradually disappearing, this dance is very difficult to perform, people irrespective of social status were participating in it, traditionally, and marriage, death, constructing a house, agricultural works, and other happenings are not individualistic but common happenings for the whole community. Every one of the village and their relatives used to share the work, the expenditure and carrying on the occasion among them selves, it was common responsibility. The recent so-called development brought in Shamyanas( Cloth pendals), chairs, sound boxes, tapes and CDs, private cooks imported from other places, TV cinemas and India made Foreign liquor occupied the place of home made Ippasara disconnected the everlasting community based life style of tribal. ) The imported money consuming festivals enchanted youth beyond limits, Vijaya Dasami for heavy drinking, New Years Day for un controllable mischief, and traditional Hindu money consuming  festivals, and families converting are increasing in number, all the  so called religions that divide communities are now dividing tribal communities also.  Individual economic development is adding fuel to it. Youth is directly affected by this change.

Education:

            Mandal Prajaparishad has established a primary school in each village . The Integrated Tribal Development Agency (I.T.D.A.) has established Upper Primary and High Schools with Residential facilities at major centers.  Education for the tribal students is totally free up to intermediate.  Yet the literacy rate is very, very low, the quality is un competitive, and education is of no value for Tribal youth, because the ten to twelve tears of spending in educational institutes landed them where they have started, in the same situation with lesser natural resources on which they strive. 

Health:

Each Revenue Mandal head quarters has a primary health centre run by the Government Health Department.  There are also few registered medical practitioners, who are rendering their services.  The most common diseases prevalent in this area are TB and Malaria.  There are also few leprosy cases.  In general people suffer from Malnutrition.  Infant mortality rate is very high in the area. Other health Services are offered by Seva Bharathi (N.G.O) by 108, 104 and Churches,
Some tribal educated unemployed got jobs in 104, some girls are opting for becoming nurses but opportunities are there.

Government Organisation:

The Integrated Tribal Development Agency (I.T.D.A.) is the most important Government organization working for the welfare of Tribes. Ashram (residential) schools, agricultural development schemes and trainings in handicrafts for self employment are some of their important programmes.  Some Voluntary organizations and few small groups are working for the welfare of the tribal. The Mandal Mahila Samakhyas and Self Help Groups even though received support from the banks, remarkable change is not observed among their life style, health or educational status of women. This has brought in some positive changes in the attitudes and behavior of women, they could talk and discuss issues with bankers and substantial awareness among educated and non educated women has emerged out of this attempt.
Some educated girls are of opinion that ITDA could organize some employment oriented trainings promoting self-employment, financial support combined with technical training would create more opportunities. Even though some attempts were made in this direction, the collection of the raw materials, making the product and marketing the product is to be shouldered by the beneficiaries; hence most of the attempts have failed due competitive market forces.

ANALYSIS OF THE SITUATION:

Location and Communication:
     The tribal villages are either located interior to the main village, or at the foot of the hill, or on the top of the hills.  One has to cross one or two perennial streams to reach one village or the other amidst the thick forest the geographical conditions are such.  The people in these villages are not exposed to the civilized world and to the emerging socio-economic advancements in any one of the fields.  They satisfy themselves only with what they have and are given by nature or somebody, but they are not opting for external in flow of money.  The other reason for this backwardness is the lack of telecommunications and transport network.( if they recognize them as facilities that help them in time of need). These facilities are available only up to a particular point. But from these interior pockets the communication or transportation is practically not easy through out the year. Recently autos are running into these areas which are most of the time useful. 
The improved communication facilities are not used for seeking employment or for self improvement but used for entertaining purposes. This is observed in places where communication facilities have improved, here the students and dropout students are spending most part of their pocket money or hard earnings on purchasing cell phones, down loading ring tones and parts of audio visual songs. Students in these areas purchase “Guides” (key books) one day before examinations not for reading but for cutting slips from them. This is where the result oriented Education Department Officials are forcing indirectly students to become lethargic, and more dependent on external, supporting mechanism at every stage of student carrier. These students when get jobs, just join in some union which supports their non performance, than appreciating better performance. These are the present role models of our tribal students. How can one expect better tribal development with these prevailing conditions?

Agriculture:

            Agriculture is the main occupation of these tribes.  Most of the tribes are either small / marginal farmers working in their small land holding, or working as agricultural labourers in the fields of others.  In general Koyas want just food for their sustenance, hence do not invest hard, long labour for achieving this end, as well as they do not hanker after saving any surplus for future. They have this attitude because they treat other families of their community as brothers, and every human being as a friend, hence they were ensured of future needs, but this attitude is fast changing now. That innocent situation has given an opportunity to so many non-tribals to capitalize on this innocence of these gullible tribes.  Many non tribal communities like Khammas, Reddies, Rajas had migrated to these areas occupied major part of this area and have been cultivating these lands, not only this but also When the Government introduced the Flue Cured Virginia tobacco movement in this region in 1960, there was a great exodus of people from the other areas to these virgin lands to capitalize by cultivating the tobacco.  As these tribes do not have the access towards the modern agricultural technology and the developing concepts.  The Tribes did not show any inclination towards the improved agricultural system.  Therefore, the others have taken an advantage of the movement. But recent awareness generated among tribes on 1/70 and other schedule rights Acts has controlling this type of exploitation to some extent.
Most of the youth both boys and girls who passed intermediate, 10th class are again coming back and taking up agriculture as their main occupation, reluctantly, some are doing other jobs also but not to their expectations.
The opportunities in this field of agriculture are not limited but proper technical inputs are needed for creating employment, the threat of Polavaram, increased agricultural investments, technical support are other supporting structures that are necessary for creating space for employment in this field.
There fore most of the dropouts and discontinued are undertaking, sharing the same activities that are performed by their parents, with in the limited resources.
In this study "The Eastern part of Chinturu mandal" is selected because ASHA has rapport in this area for the last 15 to 20 years, this region is densely populated, where as the western part is covered more with Reserve forest and more non tribal population where BPL has destroyed most part of the forest lands and Eucalyptus has been grown.
 Selection of the Revenue villages:

Mr.G.Rajeswar Rao in Mukunuru village

On the process of house hold survey.

Mukunuru and Sukumamidi are two villages that are exposed to socalled development and all its ailments. Mukunuru is a koya village, where as Sukumamidi is a kondareddy village.

 Lakkavaram, Thulugonda, Godlagudem, Pothanalapally, Dabbagudem and Tulasipakala, are koya villages on the main road and are influenced by the truck drivers, contractors and RTC bus staff.

 Alli gudem is another koya village where migrant tribes from Chattisghar  has been residing for the last 15 years.

Valmurugondi, Ratnapuram  Gondigudem    and China seetanapalli are koya villages some what away from the main road with varying distances.
Deverapalli is Very remote village  6 Kms away from Godlagudem mainroad point.

Yerragond pakal is a village resided purely by Kondareddies, 6 families that live at Tulasi pakala and Sukumamidi are also included as separately observed to know the changes that occurred in kodareddy's life style.
Methodology of Study:
House hold survey, individual interaction, small group discussions, big group discussions, discussions with community, discussions with idealists and activists like Yadayya of Koytur Bata, and press people for some relevant information.
Focal points taken into consideration:
ý  Available sources of employment. ( Agricultural and traditional)
ý  New avenues tapped by them.
ý  Boys / men, Girls / women engaged in different occupations.
ý  External influence for changed behaviour.
ý  Identified gaps.
ý  Some suggestions.

 




Location and Description of the villages:

Mukunuru:
Mukunuru is situated on the eastern bank of river Sabari, having 123 house holds, 123 families and 458 population, 118 eligible candidate were contacted for the study.
 The distribution of them is as follows:
  • 46 members still continuing Education / Technical trainings.
  • 17 are engaged in salaried jobs permanent and temporary.
  • 34 are engaged in Agriculture and other traditional activities.
  • 14 are engaged in out side labour work.
  • 01 is engaged in cattle raring.
  • 06 in other activities auto driver, lorry cleaner, tailor Etc.
Besides being engaged in own Agriculture, they work as labour in Chilly fields, NTFP collection.

Community hall where youth gather everyday.

                          Here the youth formed into a group and established a separate hall for them, where they often meet and discuss issues of their own interest, this room has few gymnastic tools, TV and four Mosquito nets provided by ITDA. No news paper or no books are around.  Five to six boys were sleeping / lying down on the floor inside the ITDA mosquito nets watching a funny movie “Chintakayala Ravi" at 11 AM, of course these are pongal holidays, when most of the men are at work out side. Even though the youth is active in conducting games and Dusserhea festival every year, not interested in improving their knowledge base, it is known from other reliable sources that this group threatens non tribes if tribal rights are tress passed and collect money for common use, last year this group collected the Beedi leaf collection cards from the tribes of Orissa and withdrew their share of bonus. It is of opinion that this group could reduce the Non tribe exploiting the tribe but started to exploit other villagers with in their own tribe. Managing these activities with out coming into light is the silver lining of the Issue of un employment in advanced tribal Double Bracket: Case study:1

Here the Educated girls who passed Intermediate went to ITDA Office basing on an advertisement that appeared on 16th Dec 2008, the ITDA official told jalli Sudharani, Madakam Rajani, Panda subba laxmi, Agaram Sarojini and Agaram Sujatha to go to Tenali and join in the nursing institute. Thinking that Tenali would be as big Chinturu they have been to Tenali, even though they tried their best they could not locate the institute. 

Both Boys and girls are of opinion that proper information, in proper time is not percolating into these areas. The opportunities and the vacancies are filled at the ITDA office level and VELUGU office it self.villages.
.
Girls of mukunuru who passed intermediate.
Ratnapuram :
Ratanapuram is a village that is 5 km away from Chinturu on the way to Motugudem towards left side of the main road. This village has 112 house holds, populated by 479 people. There is a stone crusher in this village which closed during our study. The same owner has another crusher at Gangannametta village to where some of them go for working.
 56 eligible candidate were contacted for the study.
 The distribution of them is as follows:
  • 14 members still continuing Education / Technical trainings.
  • 05 are engaged in salaried jobs, permanent / temporary.
  • 34 are engaged in Agriculture and other traditional activities.
  • 03 in other activities auto driver, lorry cleaner, tailor Etc.

TULUGONDA :
Tulugonda is a village on the main road (The main road proceeds from Chinturu to Mothugudem). This village has 106 house holds, populated by 495 people. There is a White stone quary near by in Godlagudem village which provides employment for about 50 persons. This white stone is exported from here for industrial use.
 50 eligible candidates were contacted for the study.
 The distribution of them is as follows:
  • 14 members still continuing Education / Technical trainings.
  • 1 is engaged in salaried job, permanent / temporary.
  • 23 are engaged in Agriculture and other traditional activities.
  • 10 in other activities auto driver, lorry cleaner, tailor Etc.
Konda Reddy in Yerragondapakala village  selling his Bamboo baskets

Double Bracket: Case study: 2

A boy is studying Degree in Khammam, he was stitching clothes during out survey, when asked he told that he comes to Tulugonda stitches cloths during his holidays and go back with some money. When questioned wheter he dose the same thing when he is at Khammam he told that he would not do it because it places him in an embarrassed situation. Dose it indicates the slogan dignity of labour is out dated?Dabbagudem:
Dabbagudem   is a village that is 25 km away from Chinturu on the way to Motugudem 2 km interior from the road side. This village has 98 house holds, 4 hamlets, populated by 423 people. There is a stone query near by (in Godlagudem village) this village which provides employment for about 50 persons. Some persons from this village work there. This white stone is exported from here for industrial use.. Some of the boys from this village migrated to other places and came back one boy is still in Hyderabad.
 79 eligible candidates were contacted for the study.
 The distribution of them is as follows:
  • 6 members still continuing Education / Technical trainings.
  • 70 are engaged in Agriculture and other traditional activities.
  • 2 persons are engaged in labour works.
  • 1 in other activities..



 



 

 

YERRAGONDAPAKALA:


Yerragondapakala is a Kondareddy village slightly interior from Lakkavaram a river- let separates this village from lakkavaram, the village at the foot of a hill.


Yerragondapakala.
                         This village is Kondareddy village (Premative Tribe) has 26 house holds, populated by 118 people. The main occupation of this villagers is Bamboo cutting, basket weaving agriculture and some labour work, A colony was constructed for them, but as the half completed houses are dripping, no one occupied them. People are more friendly and open,
Koda Reddy youth from Yeruwada (Hill) taking their products made with Bamboo to tribal villages




 A kondaraeedy family preparing for shandy .


    22 eligible candidates were contacted for the study.
 The distribution of them is as follows:
  • 1 member is continuing Education.
  • 1 job holder volunteer.
  • 2 are engaged in Agricultural works.
  • 5 persons are engaged in labour works.
  • 13 are engaged in bamboo cutting and basket weaving.


 A Kondareddy explaining how they catch fish from the stream.
There are 6 families near Tulasipakalawho belong to Kondareddy sect there are only 4 boys and 2 girls the 3boys are engaged in Cattle raring 1 in community farming, and the girls are engaged in community farming.
Chinaseetanapally:
Chinaseethanapally  is a remote village on the bank of Sokileru.. This village has 46  house holds, populated by 125 people.
Devarapalli:

Deverapalli village is a very remote village situated 6 Kms away from main road i.e. Godlagudem.  This village is also know as Bottenthongh in the past. This village has 48 house holds, populated by 187 people.

28 eligible candidates were contacted for the study.
 The distribution of them is as follows:
  • 2 members is continuing Education. .
  • 25 are engaged in Agricultural works.
  • 1 person is engaged in cattle grazing.



Lakkavaram:

This village situated on main road which proceeds from Chinturu to Rajahmundry.  This village is little bit exposed to outside world and all the village belongs to C.P.M. party .  There are a few party leaders living in the village.  This village has 102 families, populated by 491 people.

29 eligible candidates were contacted for the study.
 The distribution of them is as follows:
  • 20 members is continuing Education. .
  • 1 salaried job.
  • 8 are engaged in labour work.


Gondigudem:

Gondigudem village is little bit remote village.  We have to walk 2 Kms on hillside to reach this village from Main road i.e. Thulugonda.  This village is surrounded by hills and thick forest.  Very little land is available for cultivation.  This village has 36 families populated by 154 people.

26 eligible candidates were contacted for the study.
 The distribution of them is as follows:
  • 6 members are continuing Education.
  • 20 are engaged in Agricultural works.
.
Sukumamidi:

Sukumamidi village situated and shifted to roadside near Mothugudem where hydel project is there.  All the villagers are belongs to Konda Reddy community a few families of koya join them.  4 families are living inside the forest area the old village. This village has 62 families populated by 258 people.

38 eligible candidates were contacted for the study.
 The distribution of them is as follows:
  • 8 members are continuing Education.
  • 3 job holder.
  • 8 are engaged in Agricultural works.
  • 19 persons are engaged in labour works.




Tulasi pakala:

This village situated on main road which proceeds from Chinturu to Rajahmundry.  This village is little bit exposed to outside world and all the village belongs to C.P.M. party   There are a few party leaders living in the village.  This village has 72 families, populated by 356 people.

39 eligible candidates were contacted for the study.
 The distribution of them is as follows:
  • 31 members is continuing Education.
  • 2 salaried jobs.
  • 6 persons are engaged in labour works.
.

College attached Hostel (Girls):







Field of choice
courses
Computers
MS Office package, Dtp package,  tally,Photoshop package, Hard ware
Medical
Bsc Nursing, General nursing, ANM training, Community healt workers training
Designing
Ready made dress making, Embroidery, Fabric painting and Jardarshi work.
Beautician related
Beauty parlour management, interior decoration.
Spots
Archery, running, weight lift ing,
Electrical
House wiring, Motor winding,
Electronics
TV mechanism, Cell phone mechanism.
Banks /
Courses on accounting, banking , Book keeping
Police
Constable, Traffic police,
TV and press media
Anchors, reporters, stringers.
Cultural
Tribal dance promoters, Tribal music promoters,
Educational
Teachers / volunteers.

Self Managed Hostel (Boys):

 

Field of choice
courses
Computers
MS Office package, DTP package,  tally, Photoshop package, Hard ware
Medical
 RMP, PMP.
Spots
Archery, running, Volley ball,
Electrical
House wiring, Motor winding, Switch board wiring making.
Electronics
TV mechanism, Cell phone mechanism.
Police
Constable, Traffic police,
Cultural
Tribal dance promoters, Tribal music promoters,
Legal
Lawyers, Paralegal workers,
Forest Department
Beat officers, guards,

Hurdles in seeking Proper employment and Self employment Trails:

Ø  Lack of will and commitment among the youth:
With changing times, youth generally learns and works hard for their development and setting goals. This tendency is lacking in tribal youth especially in Koya tribes. This may be due to their traditional way of living, in the existing situation youth should be directed, nurtured periodically to set goals and achieve them. As well as it is observed that 99% of youth is not committed to a cause, side tracking, leaving an assignment half done, not explaining what they really feel is lacking, in a way emotional attachment to wards a set goal is rarely observed.
Organising periodical gatherings among youth of similar ideologies, discussion on issues, encouraging latent skills that are in the groups, establishing libraries, allowing, in a way forcing youth to observe different life styles in and around their areas, making them to read Life Histories to understand how all the rights that are being enjoyed by us are achieved by our great leaders, they should also know the painful sides of life to set goals, moral norms for them selves. This part is totally neglected by borrowed technical knowledge from other countries that deals with only technical and business problems. People have to live with people, in a society, technical things are for earning livelihood this difference is to be made clear when student comes out of college. Steps are to be taken on these lines.   
Ø  Low standard of youth/education:
No much difference is observed between a 10 class student and an Intermediate student, this happens because the teaching staff is not dedicated and well equipped with other skills that are needed to create enthusiasm in students, Eyewash teaching ! Completion of Courses, are the two fold activities of them. The Tribal students, immediately after joining in a school or college are seduced by different students unions who fight for student rights, but don’t take care or guide when they are out of their studies. The short sightedness prevent
Ø  Lack of information percolation:

The head of the educational institutes are not creating awareness on various courses that are available to the students after   Intermediate / tenth class. Proper systematic coaching for polytechnic, or such other courses after 10th class and various possible other courses after intermediate are to be displayed on the notice board of each school and college after the examinations.  The officer that are appointed for selecting the candidates do not come to our places for enrolling candidates but fill the forms being at their respective offices.

Other than the prescribed books, students do not read other books are magazines to improve their awareness on different faces of life. News paper facility in schools and colleges would enable the students to know about academic openings that help them acquire skills for facing the tests. This tendency is found in urban and semi rural areas but not in tribal areas.
Good sayings of Great people for inspiration are to written on the walls of the schools.
Like  Abdul Kalam’s:
“ If any thing is to be achieved, strong desire and commitment are primary needs.”
“ We are makers of our own future”
“ If you have faith you can change your future”
“ Do not waste your time when you are strong, even if you lement for a life time you won’t get that strength in your oldgae.”
Such inspiring sayings are to told and role models are to be shown.
The 10th class students in most private schools have to read news papers at their houses and tell at the time of morning gathering, in which opportunities for them after 10th class are also a part of it, such habit should be developed both at high school level and college level.

Ø  Limited range of choice:

Most of the time the technical courses that already lost their demand were being invited for by ITDA. The time when youth come out of the courses the opportunities are already filled or snatched away by lambadas or other  so called weaker sections.  Most of the time the quota that is specified for STs are not filled by KOYA candidates but by others.

Ø  Accessibility:

The ITDA office is more than 60 to 100 km from this area, going and staying there or getting immediate information from there is almost impossible and our leaders are not keen enough in supporting this cause.

Ø  Lack of transparency:

The no of posts that are allocated and the no of posts that are filled by which section of community is to be displayed on the ITDA notice board so that the eligible candidates can go for them.


Ø  Problems related bank loaning:

Banks that are supposed to grant loans are rejecting financial support to the candidates whose parents are defaulters/ villages that are kept in black list. Some political parties misguide the debtors not to pay the loan back and tell them that the amount given banks is a fund, to keep up their vote banks. Every time when the Government before elections write-off the loans the loss is to be born by the banks. Hence banks do not support finance to youth that do not bring a guarantee with them.  This year under Prime Minister Rojgar Yojana programme, 6 members were given consent by the local banks out of 600 of tribal youth who attended for the meeting.  These 6 beneficiaries  belongs to Non-tribal communities, some are binamy.

Banks are afraid to grant loans for defaulters, default families, default villages, because the political party that has strong hold in these areas advise the beneficiaries not to pay back the loans, some tims the government abolishes all loans, this loss is to be born by the banks, partially or completely, hence they select binomy candidates who an pay back loan, in the names of tribal youth.

Registered youth groups or any known person could be the guarantee, but the non commitment of the youth is not allowing any well wisher to stand guarantee for them.

Ø  No single window system:

The selection of candidates, the issue of certificates and the supporting systems for employing KOYA tribe has to come from single window system i.e. through ITDA, ITDA has to keep and up date the list of the unemployed youth of KOYA tribe.

Recommondations:


  • Establish Career guidance Centres at Panchayath level/Mandal level.
  • Provide news papers and career guidance magazines to hostels and Grama Panchayaths.
  • Establish Youth clubs for Personality Development among youth.
  •  Orientation in Hostels on moral education.
  • Encourage youth in sports which are interested and traditionally practiced.
  • Promotion of networks among youth.
  • Pubulish a magazine that gives career guidance for Koya community at divisional level.
  • Organise Youth festivals.
  • Establish different skill development trainings at Panchayath level and Mandal level.
  • Provide loans to youth by local Bankers.
  • Promote and monitor the Self employment schemes related to resources available here.
  • Organising placement linked/employed linked trainingsd to the youth.

Major source of income now a days;

Income sources for youth
100 days labour  40%
40
Out side works 30%   
30
NTFP 10%
10
commercial crops 15%
15
Miscellaneous 5%
5
Total
100

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